2016_10_Adaptive instruction for medical training in the psychomotor domain
Abstract: The adaptive instruction provided by Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) tailors direction, support, and feedback to enhance/maintain the learning needs (e.g., lack of knowledge or skill) of each individual. Today, ITSs are generally developed
to support desktop training applications, with the most common domains involving cognitive problem solving tasks (e.g., mathematics and physics). In recent years, implementations of game-based tutors authored using the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT), an open-source tutoring architecture, provided tailored training experiences for military tasks through desktop applications (e.g., games including Virtual Battlespace and Virtual Medic). However, these game-based desktop tutors have also been limited to adaptive instruction for cognitive tasks (e.g., problem solving and decision-making). The military requires adaptive instruction to extend beyond the desktop to be compatible with the physical nature of many tasks performed by soldiers, sailors, and airmen. This article examines how commercial sensor technologies might be adapted to work with GIFT and support tailored computer-guided instruction in the psychomotor domain for a military medical training task, specifically hemorrhage control. Toward this goal, we evaluated the usability and system features of commercial smart glasses and pressure-sensing technologies. Smart glasses were selected as the focus of this study over handheld mobile devices in order to promote a hands-free experience during the training of hemorrhage-control tasks on a mannequin. Pressure sensors were selected to provide direct measures of effectiveness during the application of tourniquets and pressure bandages. Each set of technologies (smart glasses and pressure sensors) was evaluated not with respect to each other, but with respect to their capabilities to support adaptive instruction
in the wild at the learner’s point-of-need and criteria based on established usability heuristics. Instruction in the wild is training provided in an environment outside the classroom and areas where tracking and sensing infrastructure are available (e.g., deployed areas of operation). We examined a wide range of features and capabilities, and evaluated their compatibility with the hemorrhage-control task, to answer the following question: what system design features (e.g., usability and interaction) are needed to support adaptive instruction for this individual psychomotor task at the point-ofneed in locations where no formal training infrastructure is available?
Citation: Sottilare, R., Hackett, M., Pike, W., & LaViola, J. (2016). Adaptive instruction for medical training in the psychomotor domain. The Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548512916668680.